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William Levi - Chief Editor, Abijah & Nechemyah Levi, Assistant Editors . 

E-mail:levifamily@Operationsnehemiah.org

President Salva Kirr Mayardit -since 2011

Second Vice President of South Sudan, James Wani Igga- since August  2013

 

Colonel John Garang de Mabior was a Sudanese leader, founder of the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA) which fought a 22 year civil war against the northern dominated, Islamist Sudanese Government. Was made vice president of the Sudan and  Frist President of South Sudan on the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement in 2005, shortly before his death.

Date of birth: 23 June 1945, Wangkulei, Dinkaland, Anglo-Egyptian Sudan
Date of death: 30 July 2005, South Sudan.

Republic of South Sudan
H.E Salva Kiir Mayardit, the first elected President of South Sudan. Flag Coat of arms

Motto: "Justice, Liberty Prosperity"National Anthem: "OH God,Oh God ... "

Capital (and largest city) Juba Official language(s) English Recognized national languages Sudanese indigenous language Demonym South Sudanese Government Federal presidential democratic republic - President Salva Kiir Mayardit - Vice President Riek Machar Legislature National Legislature - Upper house Council of States - Lower house National Legislative Assembly Independence from Sudan - Comprehensive Peace Agreement 6 January 2005 - Autonomy 9 July 2005 - Independence 9 July 2011

 

Political geography
South Sudan is divided into ten states which correspond to three historical regions of the Sudan: Bahr el Ghazal , Equatoria , and Greater Upper Nile .
Bahr el Ghazal

· Northern Bahr el Ghazal
· Western Bahr el Ghazal
· Lakes
· Warrap

Equatoria

· Western Equatoria
· Central Equatoria (containing the national capital city of Juba)
· Eastern Equatoria

 

Greater Upper Nile

· Jonglei
· Unity
· Upper Nile

The ten states are further subdivided into 86 counties .
The Abyei Area , a small region of Sudan bordering on the South Sudanese states of Northern Bahr el Ghazal, Warrap, and Unity, currently has a special administrative status in Sudan and is governed by an Abyei Area Administration . It was due to hold a referendum in 2011 on whether to join South Sudan or remain part of the Republic of Sudan, but in May the North Sudanese military seized Abyei, and it is not clear if the referendum will be held.
Land boundaries
The length of South Sudan's borders is 4,797 kilometers. Bordering countries are (with boundary length):

 

· Central African Republic (682 km)
· Democratic Republic of the Congo (628 km)
· Ethiopia (883 km)
· Kenya (232 km)
· Sudan (1,937 km)
· Uganda (435 km)

  Mountains:
The Imatong Mountains are located in the southeast of South Sudan in the state of Eastern Equatoria, and extend into Uganda. Mount Kinyeti is the highest mountain of the range at 10,456 ft, and the highest in the whole of South Sudan. The range has an equatorial climate and had dense forests supporting diverse wildlife. In recent years the rich ecology has been severely degraded by forest clearance and subsistence farming, leading to extensive erosion of the steep slopes.

 

  Natural resources:
South Sudan is mostly covered in tropical forest , swamps, and grassland. The White Nile passes through the country, passing by the capital city of Juba .
Half the water of the White Nile is lost in the swamps as vegetation absorbs it or animals drink it. The Sudd , the Bahr el Ghazal and the Sobat River swamps provide a significant resource for w Government

 

  Politics of South Sudan:
The now defunct Southern Sudan Legislative Assembly ratified a transitional constitution shortly before independence on 9 July 2011. The constitution was signed by the President of South Sudan on Independence Day and thereby came into force. It is now the supreme law of the land, superseding the Interim Constitution of 2005.The constitution establishes a mixed presidential system of government headed by a president who is head of state , head of government , and commander-in-chief of the armed forces. It also establishes the National Legislature comprising two houses: a directly elected assembly, the National Legislative Assembly ; and a second chamber of representatives of the states, the Council of States . John Garang , the founder of the SPLA/M was the first president of the autonomous government until his death on 30 July 2005. Salva Kiir Mayardit , his deputy, was sworn in as First Vice President of Sudan and President of the Government of Southern Sudan on 11 August 2005. Riek Machar replaced him as Vice-President of the Government . Legislative power is vested in the government and the bicameral National Legislature . The constitution also provides for an independent judiciary, the highest organ being the Supreme Court .

 

Developing State capacity:

The post-conflict environment is important to understanding the Government of South Sudan's ability to function and successfully implement its policies. The Government of South Sudan has had significant success in building its own capacity by developing an integrated system for planning and budget preparation. This has been achieved through the leadership of the Ministry of Finance , the strong technical leadership and support of that same ministry and making these goals relevant to local capacity. The results have been that the government has been better able to manage the financial aspects of its functions and projects, and increases in the expertise of its staff in crucial skills, such as basic IT.

 

National capital project:

The capital of South Sudan is located at Juba , which is also the state capital of Central Equatoria and the county seat of the eponymous Juba County , as well as being the country's largest city. However, due to Juba's poor infrastructure and massive urban growth, as well as its lack of centrality within South Sudan, the South Sudanese Government adopted a resolution in February 2011 to study the creation of a new planned city to act as the seat of the government.This proposal is functionally similar to construction projects in Abuja , Nigeria ; Brasília , Brazil ; and Canberra , Australia ; among other modern era planned national capitals. It is unclear how the government will fund the project.
In September 2011, a spokesman for the government said the country's political leaders had accepted a proposal to build a new capital at Ramciel , a place in Lakes state near the borders with Central Equatoria, Eastern Equatoria , and Jonglei . Ramciel is considered to be the geographical center of the country,  and the late pro-independence leader John Garang allegedly had plans to relocate the capital there before his death in 2005. The proposal was supported by the Lakes state government and at least one Ramciel tribal chief. The design, planning, and construction of the city will likely take as many as five years, government ministers said, and the move of national institutions to the new capital will be implemented in stages.

 In 1972 Addis Ababa Agreement
Major General Joseph Lagu and the Sudanese president, Jaafar Muhammad an-Numeiry, signed the Addis Ababa Agreement in 1972, bringing to an end the First Sudanese Civil War -- the agreement granted Southern Sudan autonomy. Lagu rejoined the Sudanese army, as did many of his fellow rebel soldiers, with the rank of Major General and served for a further eight years. In civilian life, Joseph Lagu entered politics, and joined the High Executive Council of the Southern Sudanese Autonomous Regional Assembly in 1978. In 1982 he was given the, mostly ceremonial, position of Second Vice President of the Republic of The Sudan.

Date of birth: 21 November 1931 - Present, Momokwe, Madiland, Anglo-Egyptian Sudan